As shown by the research of Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) in 2018, 80.6% of traffic accidents were due to drivers. Only 19.4% of road accidents were provoked by unfavorable traffic conditions.
Improved driver-assistance systems may help prevent a bigger number of accidents. Follow the article to find out what AD and ADAS are and how they work for driverless cars.
What is ADAS?
ADAS (advanced driver-assistance systems) are sophisticated solutions aimed to boost traffic safety. They are as follows:
- cruise control that slows down or speeds up a car depending on vehicles ahead;
- smart parking system that directs a vehicle to the designated parking lot with minimum driver’s assistance;
- adaptive lighting system that adjusts the geometry of light beams of headlamps depending on the weather and traffic;
- smart mirror function that detects vehicles in blind areas;
- warning about entering an oncoming lane or a one-way road;
- road signs recognition system that reacts to the most important traffic signs: speed limits, falling stones, etc.
There exist many forms of ADAS, some of their features are initially built into cars. We can roughly single out three types of driver-assistance systems:
- adaptive (adjusts being based on outside data received by the vehicle);
- automated (performs functions that a driver cannot do in a safe way);
- monitoring (assess the traffic condition near the car and if needed, interfere the driving process).
To monitor and assess the traffic, ADAS uses sensors and video cameras.
What is AD?
With the tech advance, AD (autonomous driving) is becoming a more and more demanded function. The term ‘self-driving car’ usually refers to the vehicle’s ability to move without a human. Using a range of technologies, autonomous transport means identify a route, bypass obstacles, and differentiate objects.
However, both self-shifting and driverless cars with no steering wheel and dash panel are examples of autonomous vehicles. To differentiate them, automakers put forward six levels of driving automation.
Level 0. Automobiles of this type imply the full responsibility of the driver who controls the entire driving process and all the functions.
Level 1. Under certain circumstances, the vehicles of this category may execute ST&B (steering, acceleration, braking). However, the driver has to continuously control the situation and if needed interfere.
Level 2. These vehicles may perform ST&B functions on a regular basis. The technology does not need the driver in the driving process until the system controls the situation. This car category offers at least two automatic functions (acceleration and steering) but the driver remains accountable for all the rest actions.
Level 3. At this level, the car can analyze the traffic conditions and perform ST&B functions. This type of autonomous cars is intended for highways since it will not work in terms of complicated city traffic. At this level, a human intervenes only in case of emergent or unexpected situations.
Level 4. The automobile takes control over everything needed for driving. No human assistance is needed. However, automation of this level cannot be used in bad weather conditions.
Level 5. In cars with the fifth level of automation, a driver becomes a passenger. No human assistance is needed.
The future of AD and ADAS
Just like safety belts, AD and ADAS are to be legitimate. For example, Japan and the EU are expected to make the systems of automatic braking a cars’ necessary component until 2020-2022.
What is more, automakers intend to introduce additional ADAS technologies into all passenger cars soon. Twenty carmakers constituting 99% of US automobile market have already promised to make automated emergency braking (AEB) a usual car’s function by 2020.
Currently, ADAS can work with a wireless network. Due to data transmission between cars and infrastructure objects, such systems offer more effective traffic solutions.
For more details on the new-generation driver-assistance systems, join us at Connected Car Conference on May 23 and hear the presentation of Roman Ferster, CEO at RGRAUTO Ltd. and an Official Distributor of Mobileye, An Intel Company, in the Russian Federation.